Monastery medicine
"По случаю неисправностей в Аптекарской палате"

Apothecary gardens of Peter the Great

One of the first decrees signed by young Peter I (then still reigning jointly with his brother Ivan Alekseevich) has a very interesting title: "On the occasion of malfunctions in the Pharmaceutical Chamber." Alas, by the end of the 17th century, the situation with medicines in Russia was exactly "faulty": the sovereign's doctors only cared about the royal family and the army, and the rest of the population (including, note, noble people) was often treated with anything. So one of the first reforms of Peter after the final accession was precisely the pharmacy: by a decree of November 22, 1701, the "green rows" in Moscow were closed, in which anyone could sell medicines, and new pharmacies were established, permissions to open which were issued only to professionals.

During the Northern War with Sweden, there was a catastrophic shortage of medicines, and in 1706, by decree of Peter I, on the outskirts of Moscow, behind the Sukharev Tower (in those days it was considered the outskirts), a garden was laid for growing medicinal plants. It is from this moment that the history of the Aptekarsky Ogorod, the oldest botanical garden in Russia, begins.

By that time, new military pharmacies had already been established - in the troops, in the hospitals created under them, with the fleet under construction. More and more medicines were needed, including those plants for which it was impossible to find "berry picking" in the wild - and in 1706 Tsar Peter ordered the opening of a new pharmacy garden in Moscow, behind the Sukharev Tower. Moreover, from the very beginning, plantings were supposed not only "industrial", but also scientific and educational: medicinal and other herbs, shrubs, trees were grown in the Moscow Apothecary Garden - "to instruct citizens in their difference." In fact, it was the first botanical garden in Russia. Almost a century later, in 1805, the Pharmaceutical Garden, abandoned by that time, became the Botanical Garden of Moscow University, and since 1950, after the laying of a new garden on Sparrow Hills, it became its branch.

With the transfer of the capital to the newly built St. Petersburg, there also appeared its Apothecary garden. Actually, the first plantings of medicinal plants for the needs of a military hospital arose there almost before the city - under the walls of the Nyenschantz (Kantsy) fortress recaptured from the Swedes on Bolshaya Okhta. And in 1714, for the needs of pharmacists, by royal decree, a whole island on the Neva was allocated - then called Berezov because of the dense forest growing in the swamps, and then called Aptekarsky. A large Summer Garden was laid out there, greenhouses were built for heat-loving plants, and some herbs, especially aromatic ones - "which smell" - were brought from Moscow apothecary plantings in Izmailovo.

Apothecary garden
(Old botanical garden)
Apothecary garden
(Old botanical garden)
Botanical Garden of Moscow State University
Location: Moscow, Prospect Mira, 26 (metro station "Prospect Mira")
Type of monument: Monument of landscape art
The Pharmaceutical Garden on the former 1st Meshchanskaya Street is the oldest scientific botanical institution in Russia that has survived to this day.
By the beginning of the 18th century, there were four state pharmaceutical gardens in Moscow. They not only met the needs of pharmacies in medicinal raw materials, but also carried out medical and botanical research. One of them - the garden of the Main Pharmacy, located on the right bank of the Neglinnaya River, between the Troitsky and Borovitsky Gates of the Kremlin, in 1706, by order of Peter I, was transferred to the Meshchanskaya Sloboda, located within the boundaries of the Kamer-Kollezhsky Val. It is traditionally believed that the reason for the transfer was the construction of bastions around the Kremlin in anticipation of an attack on Moscow by the Swedes. However, new fortifications were created by decree of May 6, 1707. The collection of the Apothecary Garden includes plants taken from the royal garden in Izmailovo. The vegetable garden served as a platform for pharmaceutical training.
Peter I showed interest in the arrangement of the Pharmaceutical Garden, thought over the initial layout, chose planting materials and, according to legend, personally participated in planting. At first, foreign botanists were invited to manage the garden, mainly from Germany, where there was a centuries-old tradition of organizing medical gardens and creating botanical collections.
Originally owned by the Pharmaceutical Order, the garden soon came under the jurisdiction of the Main Military Hospital established by Peter I, and at the end of the 18th century, the Medical and Surgical Academy. After she moved to St. Petersburg on April 1, 1805, the Apothecary Garden was acquired by Moscow University, transformed into a botanical garden and gradually turned into a serious scientific center.
CODE OF PETROVSK MONUMENTS OF RUSSIA AND EUROPE on the website of the Peter the Great Institute
Medicinal fees
Peter I did not ignore the medicinal resources of various provinces of Russia: as early as 1702, a decree was issued on the harvesting and use of Siberian plants, in 1709 the first pharmacy gardens appeared in the Poltava province (in 1721, the main one, in the city of Lubny, became state), and in 1720 a decree was issued on the organization of a pharmacy garden in Astrakhan - specifically for growing subtropical trees and herbs exported from Persia, and a pharmacist and a gardener for this institution were sent from St. Petersburg.
Unfortunately, after the death of the first Russian emperor, much of what he started gradually fell into decay. Apothecary gardens were often maintained only on the enthusiasm of their leaders (among whom there were many world-famous natural scientists who conducted their research on such a unique scientific basis), but ... In the Moscow Aptekarsky garden, for example, the position of director, which was 1741 was reduced - and restored only in 1786, during the reign of Catherine II, which falls on the next "golden age" of the Russian Empire and Russian medicine.
Aptekarsky Island "Great Garden"
St. Petersburg today is the northernmost of the cities in the world with a population of over a million people. The scientific activity that once unfolded on a small island gave birth to a large number of scientific, medical and educational institutions: the Bekhtereva Institute of the Human Brain, the Chemical Pharmaceutical Academy and many others. In addition, the lives of many famous scientists are associated with this island: Pavlov, Bekhtereva, Popov.

At the beginning of the 18th century, in 1714, by decree of Emperor Peter I, the island on the Petrograd side of the capital, which was once called Wild, Elov and even Voronim, was given under the activities of the Medical Office and the Main Pharmacy. Here, in a special garden, pharmacists were engaged in the cultivation of medicinal plants, which, after drying and processing, entered the city pharmacies and people's tables. And the technologies of farming in a controlled environment, applied by them, allowed Peter the Great to get a wide range of not only green crops, but also citrus fruits on the tables even at that time in the northern latitudes.

The apothecary city was so well arranged, so picturesque and flourishing that in the 30s of the 18th century the townspeople called it "the great garden", and the garden itself later gave the name to the whole island - "Aptekarsky Island". The garden turned into a luxurious Botanical Garden, where unique plants are grown in greenhouses and flower beds to this day and walks are taken.

The Fathers of the Fatherland realized the benefits of plant nutrition and the need for daily addition of greens to the diet of citizens as well as the benefits of spiritual enlightenment and spiritual rest. The king's order was born that there should be "gardens and palisades", training is being carried out in all spheres of life of subjects. The value of a healthy lifestyle was laid down: walking meditative walks in parks and gardens, the tradition of developing concentration skills (playing chess), and other virtues.
Botanical Garden
Peter the Great
Историческая справка
Аптекарские огороды Петра Великого
Historical reference

Apothecary gardens of Peter the Great
Aptekarsky Island and Petrogradsky Island are separated from each other by the narrow river Karpovka. Before the arrival of Peter I, in Finnish the Aptekarsky island was called Korpisaari, translated into Russian as "wooded".
The island is located on the server of the Neva delta. Of the entire group of islets in this part, only the apothecary island was state property. Tsar Peter in 1714, separated this place only for the settlement of pharmacists. Medicinal herbs were grown on the island, they were collected, dried, processed and sent to pharmacies. The apothecary's place soon became a beautiful, well-groomed garden.
On the basis of this town, the world-famous Botanical Garden appeared, which gathered the richest collection of plants from different parts of the world, and the Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The garden with medicinal plants gave the name to the island, which remains to this day. The bank of Karpovka, in the time of Peter, was the location of the house with the plot of the bishop, the poet Feofan Prokopovich. Nearby was an institution he had created for orphans. In the 19th century, the Peter and Paul Hospital arose there, and later medical universities were founded, which moved to the right bank of the river and were occupied by gardens.
1712 - the former Vorony Island is placed at the disposal of the Medical Office and receives the name Aptekarsky.
1714 - Apothecary garden is broken.
1803 - The Pharmaceutical Garden is renamed into the Imperial Botanical Garden.
1850-60s - scientific research is stopped in the Botanical Garden and cultivation of decorative flowers begins.
1798 - the beginning of the development of the island with country estates.
May 16, 1903 - opening of the Trinity Bridge.
Park schedule
st. Professor Popov, d.2
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Holidays
10:00 – 16:30
Greenhouses are open from 11:00 to 16:30
park area
The area of the park is 16.7 hectares, the area of greenhouses is over 1 hectare.
The cost of tickets to visit without excursion service: 150 rubles, children from 4 to 7 years old and schoolchildren - 50 rubles, preferential categories of citizens - free of charge. A visit with one of the excursion greenhouse routes: 400 rubles, children from 4 to 7 years old and schoolchildren - 250 rubles, preferential categories of citizens - 250 rubles.

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