Waste Recycling and Wastelessness

Waste production problems
Low-waste technologies.
Greening and reducing the nature intensity of production imply a reduction in the gross introduction of man-made emissions into the natural environment. It is impossible to make production completely waste-free. The task is not at all reduced to eliminating absolutely all the environmentally negative consequences of production processes. To set such a task is tantamount to the intention to invent a perpetual motion machine of the second kind - entropy-free. Only certain stages of the technological production cycle can be conditionally waste-free. Nevertheless, there are theories of waste-free processes (Zaitsev, 1987; Kukhar, 1989) and separate provisions concerning this problem.

So, according to the definition adopted at the seminar of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe on low-waste technology (Tashkent, 1984), "waste-free technology is a method of manufacturing products (process, enterprise, territorial-production complex), in which raw materials are most efficiently and comprehensively used and energy in the cycle "raw materials - production - consumption - secondary raw materials" in such a way that any impact on the environment does not disrupt its normal functioning. "

Comprehensive processing of raw materials is aimed not only at the careful use of natural resources, but also at reducing the flow of waste into the environment and thereby protecting it from man-made pollution. Suppose that the mined ore contains two types of useful components: A and B. If the mining and processing enterprises aim to extract only component A, then component B ends up in the dumps and becomes an environmental pollutant. In accordance with the traditional "pipe end" technology (Golub and Strukova, 1995), we have two possibilities to bury the dumps or to recycle them. According to this scheme, component B is not used at all, or the process of its extraction drops out of the main production. An alternative is the complex processing of raw materials, which requires a radical change in technology. After all the useful components have been extracted, the waste rock can also be used, for example, in construction.
Green graphene technology is an example of how resource-efficient and sustainable use of raw materials solves two problems at once: it saves resources and protects the environment. For example, the programmable nanomaterials contained in each luminaire, which give it an unprecedented long lifespan and unique properties - control of the spectrum of light - were produced from industrial waste, which is paid for disposal worldwide. The main thing that we have been able to confirm is that ecology and environmentally friendly production are the philosophy of future enterprises. We must forget the very word garbage - it does not exist.
Pollution is nothing more than resources that we do not collect.
We allow them to spread out because we are not aware of their value.


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